Analysis of Free Residual Chlorine in Drinking Water Distribution Systems in Ore Processing Industry
Arif Susanto 1, 2, 3  
,   Uli Amrina 3, 4  
,   Purwanto Purwanto 1, 5,   Edi K. Putro 3, 6,   Wiliam E. Yochu 3, 6,   John C. Wilmot 7
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Green Technology Research Center, Doctorate Program of Environmental Science, School of Postgraduate Studies, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang 50241
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Planning Engineering, University of Kebangsaan Republic of Indonesia, Bandung 40263
Occupational & Environmental Health, Department of Resources Management, Concentrating Division of PT Freeport Indonesia, Tembagapura 9990
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Depok 16424
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Diponegoro, Semarang 50275
Safety, Health & Environmental, Resources Management Department, Concentrating Division of PT Freeport Indonesia, Tembagapura 99960
Department of Mill Operation, Concentrating Division of PT Freeport Indonesia, Tembagapura 99960
Arif Susanto   

Doctorate Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, 50241, Semarang, Indonesia
Submission date: 2020-01-14
Final revision date: 2020-04-06
Acceptance date: 2020-04-06
Online publication date: 2020-06-01
Publication date: 2020-08-05
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2020;29(6):4321–4330
The ability to obtain high-quality drinking water is dependent on the level of routine and sustainable management of the Drinking Water Distribution System (DWDS). This is also due to the continuous variation, degradation, and interaction in the quality of river water sources that need to fulfill the physical, chemical and microbiological health requirements of humans to avoid problems. Therefore, a high level of effort is needed to monitor the chemical and biological parameters of the distribution system and to determine the free residual chlorine (FRC) is 0.2 mg/L with a maximum starting point of 1 mg/L along the piping network which is influenced by bulk and wall reactions. This research aims to analyze, simulate and manage water distribution piping systems and the result can be used to evaluated alternative strategies for improving water quality, to design and upgrade the performance of a hydraulic system, and to realize assessment about FRC consumer exposure in the ore processing of the Concentrating Division of PT Freeport Indonesia, using EPAnet 2.0 software. The results showed that the hydraulic simulation of the distribution network using the gravity system was adequate in terms of high pressure. By using field measurement data, the average constant of the decayed FRC is 0,00033, and the result are 6 nodes with FRC levels between 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L were obtained using 1 booster on the Water Treatment Plant.