Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterococci from Wild Animals in Slovakia
Ludmila Hamarova 1  
,   Anna Kopcakova 1  
,   Marcela Kocianova-Adamcova 2  
,   Maria Piknova 3  
,   Peter Javorsky 1  
,   Peter Pristas 1, 3  
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Institute of Animal Physiology, Centre of Biosciences of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Šoltésovej 4-6, Košice 040 01, Slovakia
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Biology and Ecology, Matej Bel University, Tajovského 40, Banská Bystrica 974 01, Slovakia
Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, Šrobárova 2, Košice 041 54, Slovakia
Anna Kopcakova   

Institute of Animal Physiology, Centre of Biosciences of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Šoltésovej 4-6, Košice 040 01, Slovakia, Slovak Republic
Submission date: 2020-05-10
Final revision date: 2020-08-07
Acceptance date: 2020-08-13
Online publication date: 2021-01-26
The spread of antibiotic resistant strains is not limited to the clinical environment, but the emergence of resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in the environment has now become one of the environmental pollution factors. As a model organism for the study of the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, which are a part of digestive tract, we decided to use the genus of Enterococcus isolated from wild living animals in Slovakia to perform screening for the presence of antibiotic resistance. In our work, two hundred and eighty- three isolates were analysed. Among isolates the Enterococcus faecalis (67.1%) followed by E. hirae (15.9%), E. faecium (6.4%), E. casseliflavus (4.2%), E. durans (3.5 %) and E. mundtii (2.8%) species dominated. The most frequently resistance to tetracycline (29.3%) and erythromycin (15.9%) was detected. In birds and mammals a similar frequency of resistant enterococci was observed. The differences in antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin and vancomycin were observed. Higher prevalence of ampicillin resistant isolates was detected in birds. On the other hand, vancomycin resistant enterococci were detected in mammals but not in birds. The presence of selected antimicrobial resistance genes was studied by PCR with tet(M) and erm(B) genes being to be the most frequently encountered. Vancomycin resistant enterococci harboured only van(C1) gene. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci from the digestive tract of wild living animals suggests the genetic pollution of environment which could pose a risk for human and animal health.