Applying Different Water Quality Indices and GIS to Assess the Water Quality, Case Study: Euphrates River in Qadisiyah Province
More details
Hide details
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Babylon, Hillah, Babylon 51001, Iraq
Department of Environment Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Babylon, Hillah, Babylon 51001, Iraq
Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq
Department of Civil Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea, Sweden
Building and Construction Techniques Engineering, Al-Mustaqbal University College, 51001, Babylon, Iraq
Submission date: 2023-02-01
Final revision date: 2023-04-19
Acceptance date: 2023-04-21
Online publication date: 2023-07-13
Publication date: 2023-08-11
Corresponding author
Nadhir Al-Ansari   

Lulea University of Technology, Sweden
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2023;32(5):4201–4217
A well-known tool for assessing the quality of surface water is the water quality index (WQI) model. In this study, the WQI was generated to classify the water flowing in the Euphrates River in Qadisiyah Province. To develop analytical models, a connection between the findings and satellite images was developed. It is possible to determine what category a river’s water quality for domestic use will fall into. The Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index (WWQI), Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI), and Bascarón Water Quality Index (BWQI) were used to evaluate and examine the suitability of the Euphrates River in the city by analysing the water quality of samples taken from the five locations (Muhanawia (L1), Salahia (L2), Shamiyah (L3), Shamiyah (L4), Gammas (L5)). The hydrogen ions pH, temperature T, dissolved oxygen DO, nitrate NO3, calcium Ca, magnesium Mg, total hardness TH, potassium K, sodium Na, sulfate SO4, chlorine Cl, total dissolved solids TDS, and electrical conductivity ECvalues are provided for 2020 and 2021. Results showed the Euphrates River was deemed severely contaminated at location Gammas (L5) but acceptable at location Muhanawia (L1). During the research phase, the water quality for the Euphrates achieved a maximum of 87.43 using the CWQI for Muhanawia (L1) in 2021 and a minimum of 15.6 using the BWQI for Gammas (L5) in 2021. The excessive sulphate, total dissolved solids, calcium, and total hardness concentrations led to the low WQI. The results are analysed using a GIS, and a network database connected to the GIS is required to utilize its analytical capabilities and the geographically scattered data throughout the study region. The Water Quality Index (WQI) is not suitable for drinking, as it is below the average of the World Health Organization (WHO) suggestions.