Biodegradation of Phenol by Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens: Optimization of Growth Conditions
Ibrahem Salameh Almajali 1  
,   Amjad Al-Tarawneh 2  
,   Haitham Qaralleh 1  
,   Muhamad Al-Limoun 3  
,   Mutaz M. Al-Sarayrah 3  
,   Moath Alqaraleh 4  
,   Walid Abu Rayyan 5  
,   Khaled M. Khleifat 3  
,   Saif M Dmour 6
More details
Hide details
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Mutah University, Mu’tah, Karak 61710, Jordan
Prince Faisal Center for Dead Sea, Environmental and Energy Research, Mu’tah University, Jordan
Mutah University, Department of Biology, Karak, Mutah 61710, Jordan
Pharmacological and Diagnostic Research Center (PDRC), Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman 19328, Jordan
Department of Pharmacology and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Petra, Amman, Jordan
Department of Medical Analysis, Prince Aisha Bint AL-Hussein , Faculty of Nursing and Health Science ALHussein Bin Talal University, Jordan
Ibrahem Salameh Almajali   

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences,, Mutah University, Mu’tah, Karak, Jordan
Submission date: 2021-01-08
Final revision date: 2021-04-21
Acceptance date: 2021-04-22
Online publication date: 2021-09-14
Publication date: 2021-12-02
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2021;30(6):5435–5442
Phenol is one of the most important environmental pollutants that are found in sewage and industrial water from which agricultural lands are irrigated. In this study Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens bacterium was isolated in pure culture from phenol-uncontaminated farmland soil. Its ability to biodegrade phenol was examined. C. flaccumfaciens demonstrated its ability to use phenol as a source of carbon and energy in batch cultures. The isolated strain was able to completely biodegrade 700 mg/L phenol in a reasonable incubation period (96 h). However, these bacteria were able to completely remove 700 mg/L of phenol in a reasonable incubation period (96 h). The degradation rate of phenol was 19.4 ppm/h. However, they also endured higher concentrations than 1200 mg/L, but had a lower biodegradation rate because of cytotoxicity generated by phenol concentration of more than 700 mg/L. It was observed that the biodegradation process of phenol occurred at pH 7.0 to obtain maximum degradation of phenol by C. flaccumfaciens. In addition, the biodegradation of phenols occurred over a large range of incubation temperature (25 to 37ºC) where 28ºC was the optimum incubation temperature for C. flaccumfaciens cells for phenol biodegradation. Since this is, the first study related to the use of C. flaccumfaciens in the biodegradation process of phenol, more works need to be done, whether from a biochemical or molecular biology point of view.