Biological Investigation on Novel Natural Dye Extracted from the Bark of Calligonum polygonoides L. and Their Application on Cotton Fiber
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Departmet of Botany, Abdulwali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan
Department of Microbiology, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur 63100, Punjab, Pakistan
College of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan
Department of Microbiology, The University of Haripur, Haripur, Pakistan
Department of Botany Hazara University, Pakistan
Department of Biotechnology, University of Swabi, Pakistan
Institute of Continuing Education & Extension, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (CUVAS), Punjab, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
Department of Botany Kohsar University Murree, Pakistan
Department of Botany, University of Science and Technology, Bannu Pakistan
Department of Botany, Division of Science & Technology, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan
Department of Agriculture, Bacha Khan University, Charsadda, Pakistan
Department of Microbiology, Abdulwali Khan university, Gardan Campus , Mardan-23200, Pakistan
School of Ecology and Environmental Science, Yunnan University, China
Submission date: 2021-07-24
Final revision date: 2021-09-29
Acceptance date: 2021-10-15
Online publication date: 2022-05-30
Publication date: 2022-07-12
Corresponding author
Muhammad Shuaib   

School of Ecology and Environmental Science, Yunnan University, NO.2 North Cuihu road, Kunming, Yunnan, 650091, PR. China, School of Ecology and Environmental Science, Yunna, 650091, Kunming, China
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2022;31(4):3789–3796
Researchers are continuously focusing and exploring new aspirants in the field of natural dyeing to reduce the application of synthetic dyes and their harmful effect on living organisms via natural dyes. This aimed the evaluation on dyeing ability of a novel natural dye extracted from root bark of C. polygonoides, their pharmacological significance and phytotoxicity. Biological analyses of methanolic dye extract were conducted in laboratory according to standard protocols. Phytochemicals analysis of the dye solution indicated that it was rich in natural phenolics. Antibacterial activities were carried out in-vitro against various strains of bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniea, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia Coli. Maximum zone of inhibition against E. Coli (13 mm), K. pneumoniea (20 mm), A. baumannii (17 mm) and S. aureus (15 mm) was recorded when dye was used at 3mg/ml in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). For antifungal activity, the dye at 3 mg/ml in DMSO was highly effective against A. niger showing 17 % inhibition in fungal growth and A. flavous showing 4% inhibition in linear growth. We used DPPH radical scavenging assay to document the antioxidant potential of the dye extract. The maximum scavenging potential of dye extract was found at 400 μg/ml (48.3%±0.3). Phytotoxic effect of C. polygonoides dye was conducted by the germination of maize in various concentrations (250-1000 ppm). The dye did not show any phytotoxic effect on the development and growth maize seedlings. We also checked the dye for its dying potential on cotton fibers. It was observed that the dye stained the cotton fabric as bright red using acetic acid as a mordant. Moreover, the dye was resistant to continuous washing with tap water and after that dye was considered as not washable. We concluded from these studies that dye extracted from root bark of C. polygonoides is antibacterial, shows antioxidant properties, non-toxic and efficient in dyeing of cotton fibers.