Climate Change Critique on Dams and Anthropogenic Impact to Mediterranean Mountains for Freshwater Ecosystem - a Review
Jiali Guo 1,2
Ao Li 2
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Hubei Key Laboratory of Intelligent Yangtze and Hydroelectric Science, China Yangtze Power Co., Ltd., Yichang Hubei, 443002
College of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, China
College of Water Conservancy Science & Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
College of Engineering, Al-Qasim Green University, Al-Qasim Province 51001, Babylon, Iraq
Submission date: 2022-12-07
Final revision date: 2023-02-12
Acceptance date: 2023-02-21
Online publication date: 2023-05-10
Publication date: 2023-06-23
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2023;32(4):2981–2992
The average annual temperature, precipitation, and evaporation patterns are some of the characteristics which indicate to a globe where climate is rapidly changing. It remains uncertain regarding how this rapid climate change will impact freshwater biota; however the consequences could be absolutely catastrophic. It is urgently needed to better adapt and maintain the fragile system that comprises the Mediterranean ecosystems. Water shortages and changes in the land use can impact water quality and the watershed’s ecosystem. Changes in temperature and precipitation trends can increase the intensity of land use, the increase of water depletion, and the degradation of water quality. The effects of climate change on eco hydrology change runoff, evaporation, surface storage, and soil moisture, that all have immediate effects on the biota and biodiversity of region. It is supported by studies on eco hydrological impacts on local watersheds. The spatial pattern and surface water dynamics of watershed systems are utilized as a perspective using which to examine the hydrologic consequences. The impacts of climate change on rainfall, evaporation, soil humidity, lakes level, and quality of water, habitats, species migration, biodiversity, and economies have been investigated. The potential climatic impacts on watershed ecosystems are determined by a spatiotemporal assessment of variations in temperature and precipitation projections from a multimodal ensemble. The susceptibility of a watershed changed depending over its geographic region, terrain, and human influence. As such a manner of dealing with climate change, improving watershed systems could be beneficial. Various techniques have been proposed which can protect watersheds against by the consequences of climate and land use change. Strengthening ecosystem vulnerability requires knowledge of the Eco hydrological processes. This review anticipated effects of climate change on the Eco hydrology of watershed systems in the Mediterranean and implies strategies for adaptation to create the mechanisms more responsive.