Determining Performance and Application of Steady-State Models and Lagrangian Puff Model for Environmental Assessment of CO and NOx Emissions
Kazım Onur Demirarslan1, Şenay Çetin Doğruparmak2
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1Department of Environmental Engineering, Artvin Çoruh University,
08000 Artvin, Turkey
2Department of Environmental Engineering, Kocaeli University,
41380 Kocaeli, Turkey
Submission date: 2015-05-18
Final revision date: 2015-09-08
Acceptance date: 2015-10-26
Publication date: 2016-01-25
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2016;25(1):83–96
Air quality modellings are highly useful systems used to investigate the possible impact of emissions diffusing into the atmosphere in any area they might have on that area. There are many modelling methods whose capacities are limited by their advantages and disadvantages or the equipment they use. In this study, therefore, both steady-state models (AERMOD and ISCST-3) and the Lagrangian model (CALPUFF) are used. This study has two purposes: one is to specify performance of the models. Performances were determined with various statistical methods such as fractional bias (FB), mean squared error (MSE), and geometric mean bias (MG). The other purpose of this study is to evaluate temporal and spatial variations of point (P), area (A), and line (L) - sourced CO and NOx emissions in the research area by using the modelling methods. The district of Körfez, which is one of the districts of the province of Kocaeli, was chosen as the study area.
When the results obtained with modelling all P and A sources by three programs are analyzed, the highest annual concentration AERMOD, ISCST-3, and CALPUFF were found as 128.82, 86.96, and 201.30 μg/m3 for CO, and 7.56, 26.31, and 6.10 μg/m3 for NOx, respectively. On the other hand, when the results obtained with modelling all P and A and L sources by two programs are investigated, the highest annual concentration AERMOD and ISCST-3 were found to be 155.12, 92.46 μg/m3 for CO, and 166.93 and 89.98 μg/m3 for NOx, respectively. When contributions of the pollutant sources on pollution are evaluated, it was observed that area sources and line sources are more predominant than other sources for CO and NOx emissions.
It was observed by analyzing the diffusion maps that residential areas in the district are more concentrated. Therefore, in the study the predicted and observed values were also compared with national and international limit values and determined to meet these limit values. According to the results obtained by evaluation of performances of the models with FB, MS, and MG statistical methods, performance sorting for NOx emissions was found to be ISCST-3 > CALPUFF > AERMOD, while for CO emissions it is given as CALPUFF > AERMOD > ISCST-3. However, since it is not correct to distinguish between performance of a model for an application and that of another model accurately, performances of the models were interpreted according to the results of this study and literature review