Effects of Reduced Fertilization Combined with Titanium Gypsum on Soil Arsenic and Cadmium and Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) Growth
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State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A&F University, Zhejiang, Lin’an 311300, China
Eco-Environment Monitoring Station of Zhejiang, Lin’an 311300, China
School of Spatial Planning and Design, Zhejiang University City College, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310015, China
Key Laboratory of Soil Contamination Bioremediation of Zhejiang Province, School of Environment and Resources Science, Zhejiang A&F University, Zhejiang, Lin’an 311300, China
Department of Biology, Xinzhou Normal University, Shanxi, Xinzhou 034000, China
Weijun Fu   

State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A&F University, China
Submission date: 2022-10-12
Final revision date: 2022-12-14
Acceptance date: 2022-12-16
Online publication date: 2023-04-21
Publication date: 2023-05-18
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2023;32(3):2763–2773
Many industrial by-products have been used to fix heavy metals in contaminated soil. In this study, three amendments (titanium gypsum (TG) and two simulated titanium gypsum (STG1; STG2) were used to immobilize arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in soil and reduce their concentration in water spinach. Three fertilization regimes (local conventional fertilization (CK), 30% reduced fertilization (CJ) and 30% nitrogen reduction slow-release fertilizer (WH)) were employed to verify the feasibility of reduced fertilization. The results showed that both TG and STG reduced As and Cd concentrations in soil and water spinach. In this study, TG, STG1 and STG2 reduced soil available As concentration by 3.8%, 4.1% and 6.2%, and soil available Cd concentration by 12.6%, 20.2% and 29.0%, respectively. These amendments increased soil pH without affecting alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, and organic matter. Moreover, reduced fertilization was feasible, in this experiment, CJ had no significant effect on soil nutrients and plant growth, and WH increased soil organic matter concentration and spinach biomass. Therefore, TG and STG have excellent soil heavy metal fixation potential, and combined with reducing fertilization, they can not only alleviate the pollution of soil As and Cd, but also improve the efficiency of fertilizer utilization.