Effects of Surrounding Environment and Management System in Apple Orchards on the Occurrence of Ground Beetles
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Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Biotechnology and Horticulture, University of Agriculture, Kraków, Poland
Submission date: 2018-06-06
Final revision date: 2018-07-29
Acceptance date: 2018-08-07
Online publication date: 2019-05-14
Publication date: 2019-05-28
Corresponding author
Elżbieta Wojciechowicz-Żytko   

Department of Plant Protection Agricultural University Krakow, al. 29-Listopada 54, 31-425 Kraków, Poland
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2019;28(5):3489–3496
The aim of the observations was to determine the species composition of the Carabidae occurring in apple orchards with integrated and organic pest management, and to determine the impact of the surrounding areas on the Carabidae fauna appearing in those orchards.
A total of 367 individuals of the Carabidae, representing 17 species from 15 genera, were collected in apple orchards with different management systems and surroundings.
In both years of research, Carabidae beetles were the most numerous in the ecological orchard (142 specimens and species richness 5.8). Of the three orchards where integrated pest management was applied, the Carabidae most often occurred in the orchard with the most varied vegetation, withshrubs, trees and herbaceous plants in the neighbourhood (94 individuals). The lowest number of beetles, only 52 specimens, was reported for the site with the poorest vegetation in the neighbourhood (species richness 3.5).
The species that dominated the carabid assemblages in the orchard habitats was Harpalus rufipes, which constituted more than 60%. In terms of the number of specimens, the hemizoophages constituted the dominant group among the collected Carabidae, and the highest number was found in the ecological orchard.
The presence of refuge sites contributed to the increase in species richness of the Carabidae, whereas the use of chemical treatments in the IPM apple orchards negatively affected species richness and the number of carabids.