Extracellular Enzyme Profiles of Xerophilic Fungi Isolated from Dried Materials of Medicinal Plants
K. Janda-Ulfig1, K. Ulfig2, A. Markowska3
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1Department of Microbiology and Environmental Biotechnology, Agricultural University of Szczecin, Słowackiego 17, 71-434 Szczecin, Poland
2Division of Biomaterials and Microbiological Technologies, Polymer Institute, Szczecin University of Technology, Pułaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin, Poland
3Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Biotechnology, Szczecin University of Technology, Pułaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin, Poland
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2009;18(3):391–397
Fungal extracellular enzymes may play a role in biodeterioration of dried materials of medicinal plants and in propagation of toxigenic and pathogenic fungal strains. However, no data on enzymatic activities of xerophilic fungi contaminating these materials have been found in the literature. The objective of the study was to determine extracellular enzyme profiles of slow-growing fungi, i.e. Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. herbariorum and Aspergillus versicolor isolated from dried materials of medicinal plants from herbal shops of Szczecin, Poland. Solid media and API ZYM® test were used to determine enzymatic activities. The highest colony diameters were observed in A. versicolor on gelatin, cellulose, tributyrin, rapeseed oil, biodiesel oil and diesel oil agars, and in E. herbariorum on milk and starch agars. A. versicolor also showed the highest hydrolytic activity on milk, gelatin, starch and tributyrin agars. No hydrolysis zones were formed on cellulose, rapeseed oil and biodiesel oil agars, but the stimulation effect of the oils on fungal growth was clearly observed. The effect was the highest in E. amstelodami, and considerably increased during a 21-day incubation period. In addition, E. amstelodami and A. versicolor showed high catalase, urease and DNA-se activities. A. versicolor had higher pectate lyase activity compared to E. amstelodami. Of the fungi examined, E. amstelodami showed the highest hydrolase activity in the API ZYM® test. A. versicolor and E. amstelodami were found to be the two species with the highest biodeterioration potential for dried materials of medicinal plants. Xerophilic fungi isolated from this environment could also be used in bioremediation.