How Exposure to Ultrafine and Fine Particles of Car Smoke Can Alter Erythrocyte Forms of Male Mice
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Laboratory of Air Quality and Astro Imaging, Department of Physics, University of Brawijaya, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
Laboratory of Experimental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Brawijaya, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
Submission date: 2018-07-03
Final revision date: 2018-07-26
Acceptance date: 2018-08-07
Online publication date: 2019-03-05
Publication date: 2019-04-09
Corresponding author
Arinto Y. P. Wardoyo   

Laboratory of Air Quality and Astro Imaging, Physics Department, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, 65145 Malang, Indonesia
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2019;28(4):2901–2910
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been identified as being responsible for affecting human health. Their impacts on erythrocytes are still unclear, especially PMs emitted from motor vehicles. This study investigated the correlation between exposures to inflammatory agents of particulate matters (in terms of ultrafine particles, or PM0.1, and fine particles, or PM2.5) contained in gasoline engine car exhaust emissions and the deformation of mice erythrocytes. We used 65 male mice as experimental animals. The mice were exposed to the filtered and unfiltered PM0.1-PM2.5 for 100 seconds for as long as 8 consecutive days. The mice from each group were sacrificed on the 8th day of blood preparation. All blood samples were observed using a digital microscope (400x magnification) to calculate the amount of normal and deformed erythrocytes. The results showed that the increasing amount of PM0.1 and PM2.5 in the car smoke that was exposed to the mice caused the increasing of the erythrocyte deformation percentages. The erythrocyte deformation percentage was found linearly to the particle concentration.