Identification and Elucidation of the Designing and Operational Issues of Trickling Filter Systems for Wastewater Treatment
Imran Ali1, Zahid M. Khan2, Changsheng Peng1, Iffat Naz3, Muhammad Sultan2,
Mohsin Ali4, Muhammad H. Mahmood2, Yasir Niaz5
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1College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
2Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Bosan Road, Multan, Pakistan
3Department of Biology, Qassim University, Buraidah 51452, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
4Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 0600, Turkey
5Department of Environmental Management and Policy, Balochistan University of Information Technology,
Engineering and Management Sciences, Quetta 87300, Pakistan
Online publish date: 2017-10-10
Publish date: 2017-11-07
Submission date: 2017-03-26
Final revision date: 2017-04-21
Acceptance date: 2017-04-22
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2017;26(6):2431–2444
Water pollution has become a major environmental concern for public and environmental health in developing countries. Water resources are being contaminated mainly due to mixing of domestic, municipal, and industrial wastewaters. The wastewater management and treatment situation is deplorable mainly because of financial constraints, the unavailability of technically trained human resources, and electricity shortages. Moreover, there is a challenge for the scientific community and wastewater management experts to explore cost-effective, simple, reliable, and efficient wastewater treatment systems. Therefore, the present review highlights the option of trickling filter (TF) systems for wastewater treatment in developing countries like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and African regions, etc. In addition, the solutions to the operational/performance issues of the TF system are explored and discussed in greater detail for designing/construction of new TF systems and retrofitting the existing TFs.