Nitrogenous Nutrition Affects Uptake of Arsenic and Defense Enzyme Responses in Wheat
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Institute of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology, Plant Science and Biodiversity Center SAS , Akademická 2, P.O.Box 39A, 950 07 Nitra, Slovakia
Constantine the Philosopher University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Mathematics, Tr. A. Hlinku 1, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic
Institute of Laboratory Research on Geomaterials, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Institute of Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Dukelská 135, CZ-379 82 Třeboň, Czech Republic
University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Department of Ecochemistry and Radioecology, J. Herdu 2, Trnava, SK-917 01, Slovak Republic
Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Plant Physiology, Ilkovičova 3278/6, Bratislava, 841 04, Slovak Republic
Submission date: 2020-05-06
Final revision date: 2020-09-16
Acceptance date: 2020-09-27
Online publication date: 2021-02-04
Publication date: 2021-03-08
Corresponding author
Monika Bardáčová   

Department of Ecochemistry and Radioecology, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, Námestie J. Herdu 2, 917 01, Trnava, Slovak Republic
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2021;30(3):2213–2231
Nitrogenous nutrition influences the availability of other plant resources and, consequently, affects plant defense responses. Both a shortage and excess of N impact plants´ ability to accumulate and survive metals/metalloids, but available data are still fragmented and often contradictory. A series of 8 different NH4NO3 concentrations, ranging from zero to excessive nitrogen (35 mM N), was applied in growth media to hydroponically grown wheat (Triticum aestivum). The plants were grown at a sublethal concentration of arsenic (5 mM As3+) for 10 days and foliar accumulation of As, N and P was determined. In addition, induction of defense-related chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase enzyme isoforms was quantified upon the separation of plant protein extracts in polyacrylamide gels. As3+ interfered with N and P accumulation in shoots and strongly activated several enzyme isoforms. These responses varied with the N supply and indicated a low rate of As accumulation at low N concentrations. On the other hand, limited As transfer to shoots was a clear benefit at high N concentrations. Nevertheless, both extreme N concentrations restricted the growth. Several enzyme isoforms of both chitinases and β-1,3-glucanases exerted sensitivity to As3+, N supply or both. Their individual responses, however, contradict the generally accepted view on positive correlation between these defense molecules and N nutrition. Impacts of interplay between As3+ toxicity and nutritional stress on wheat responses are discussed. The results might contribute to knowledge applicable in efficient fertilization and food safety strategies.