Synthesizing Nano Silica Nanoparticles from Barley Grain Waste: Effect of Temperature on Mechanical Properties
Evidence Akhayere 1, 2  
Doga Kavaz 2, 3  
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Cyprus International University, Department of Environmental Science, Nicosia, Turkey
Environmental Research Centre, Cyprus International University, Nicosia, Turkey
Cyprus International University, Department of Bioengineering, Nicosia, Turkey
International Clean Water Institute, Manassas, Virginia and New Jersey City University - State University of New Jersey, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA
Online publish date: 2019-01-18
Publish date: 2019-03-01
Submission date: 2018-02-26
Final revision date: 2018-05-08
Acceptance date: 2018-05-15
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2019;28(4):2513–2521
In this investigation we report the synthesis of nano silica (NS) nanoparticles from barley grass waste – an environmental burden – using varying temperatures during preparation. The temperatures used during the investigation were 400, 500, 600, and 700ºC, and we studied its effects on the mechanical properties of the NS nanoparticles for use in environmentally friendly applications. Furthermore, the NS nanoparticles resulting from high temperature synthesis were characterized using various characterization methodologies such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry analysis. The result of the various characterizations revealed the presence of elemental Si, C, and O in the synthesized nanoparticles. Using XRF, we observed that higher amounts of SiO2 particles from NS were obtained at 600ºC and 700ºC, also resulting in higher strength in the mechanical properties. Furthermore, using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) methodology, we were able to measure the surface area corresponding to 150 m2/g. Additional methodologies were used, such as differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), SEM, and tensile analysis. The results of this study showed improved and stable mechanical properties with the increase in temperature during synthesis.