The Effect of Motorcycle Fine and Ultrafine Particle Matters on the Mice’s Liver
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Physics Department, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran 65145 Malang, East Java, Indonesia
Physics Study Program, Mataram University, Jl. Majapahit No. 62 83125 Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
Submission date: 2022-10-04
Final revision date: 2023-03-19
Acceptance date: 2023-05-20
Online publication date: 2023-06-27
Publication date: 2023-08-11
Corresponding author
Johan Andoyo Effendi Noor   

Laboratory of Air Quality and Astro Imaging, Physics Department, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, 65145, Malang, Indonesia
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2023;32(5):4229–4239
Liver diseases have been linked to ambient emission exposure, especially fine (FP) and ultrafine particles (UFP). At the same time, the influence of specific emission sources is needed due to the increase in the number of emission sources. In this study, we evaluated the influence of motorcycle FP and UFP emission on mice livers. Motorcycles emission was selected due to the number of motorcycles that were reported to increase significantly, especially in developed countries. The emission was also chosen because no one had yet evaluated the influence of motorcycle FP and UFP exposure on the liver. In order to fill this gap, we evaluated the impact of motorcycle FP and UFP on mice. The mice were grouped into the control and experiment groups. The mice from the experimental groups were exposed to motorcycle FP and UFP particles in different exposure doses: C1 (20 s), C2 (40 s), C3 (60 s), C4 (80 s), and C5 (100 s). All of the exposure were conducted twice a day for eight consecutive days. On the last day, all mice were sacrificed, while the Kupffer cells were observed under a digital microscope. In the results, we found that the exposure doses strongly influenced the number of Kupffer cells (R2>0.9) with increased exposure doses. The influence of exposure day was also substantial but not as significant as the exposure doses (R2>0.8). Furthermore, the Kupffer cells number was raised logarithmically for the exposure doses or exposure day increases. The inflammation was also increased with the Kupffer cell number increase. We observed that the increased exposure dose increases the population with higher inflammation scores. The destructive liver index was raised with increased exposure doses and exposure days. In conclusion, motorcycle FP and UFP exposure significantly impact Kupffer cell activation, liver inflammation, and damage to mice’s liver. However, an evaluation of another source of particles, e.g., gasoline or diesel-fueled vehicles, are needed to find the characteristic of each source of emissions.