What do We Know about the Risk Arising from Perfluorinated Compounds
Magdalena Surma1,2, Henryk Zieliński2
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1Malopolska Centre of Food Monitoring, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture in Kraków,
Balicka 122, 30-149 Cracow, Poland
2Department of Chemistry and Biodynamics of Food,
Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences,
Division of Food Science, Tuwima 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
Publish date: 2015-04-02
Submission date: 2014-07-03
Final revision date: 2014-09-18
Acceptance date: 2014-09-23
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2015;24(2):449–457
Many studies have shown the adverse effects of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) on living organisms. PFCs include groups of perfluorinated sulfonic acids, perfluorinated carboxylic acids, fluorotelomer alcohols, high-molecular weight fluoropolymers and low-molecular weight perfluoroalkanamides. These compounds are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation. Currently, humans are at increased risk as PFCs are resistant to hydrolysis, photolysis, microbial degradation, or metabolism, and their estimated elimination half-life is about 3.8 years. Therefore, the scale of the bioaccumulation of PFCs in humans is not fully known. Our review provides basic information regarding the chemical nature of PFCs, their production, and use, as well as the current European Union legislation. A special focus was put on the sources of food contamination by PFCs, toxicological studies, estimation of human exposure to PFCs, and tolerable daily intake. At present, there is no legislation for perfluorinated compounds in food of plant and animal origin within the European Union.