A Review of the Application of Biofloccualnts in Wastewater Treatment
Mayowa O. Agunbiade1,2, Carolina H. Pohl2, Anofi O.T. Ashafa1
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1Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free Sate,
Qwaqwa Campus, Puthaditjabha 9866, South Africa
2Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State,
Bloemfontein 9301, South Africa
Submission date: 2015-10-14
Final revision date: 2015-12-17
Acceptance date: 2015-12-19
Publication date: 2016-07-22
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2016;25(4):1381-1389
The rate of increase in industrialization and daily human activities has resulted in a tremendous increase in the amounts of waste and wastewater containing organic and inorganic pollutants discharged to the environment. Coagulation-flocculation technology has been widely employed in water/wastewater treatment as a convenient and reliable technique for removing colloids, particles, and cell debris. Organic and inorganic flocculants have also been used in fermentation industries, and in waste and water treatment due to its potential to flocculate efficiently at a minute dosage. However, their use has been restricted as a result of their low efficiency, associated health risks, and non-biodegradability. As a result, the health implication of chemical flocculants has necessitated environmentally friendly biodegradable bioflocculants in wastewater treatment in terms of dye, colour, solids, and turbidity removal. Industrial applications of some microorganisms implicated in bioflocculation have been established. However, the application of actinobacteria strains that have been isolated, screened, and confirmed for bioflocculation have yet to be validated. Hence, this paper reiterates that Actinobacteria have been implicated in flocculation and elaborates on the need for isolation and screening of novel Actinomycetes with better removal and cost efficiency in order to enhance their large- and medium-scale production and establish their industrial application.
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