Study on Water Diffusion Characteristics in the In-situ Soil of Exfiltration Type Bioretention
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School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Henan University of Urban Construction, Longxiang Avenue, Xinhua District, Pingdingshan 467000, China
China Railway 10th Bureau Group Investment Development Co., Ltd, China Railway Caizhi Industrial South Road, Lixia District, Jinan 250001, China
Highway School, Chang’an University, South 2nd Ring Road, Xian, 710064, China
Submission date: 2022-06-23
Final revision date: 2022-10-09
Acceptance date: 2022-10-21
Online publication date: 2022-12-23
Publication date: 2023-01-12
Corresponding author
Junkui Pan   

School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Henan University of urban construction, Longxiang Avenue, Xinhua District, 467000, Pingdingshan, China
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2023;32(1):677-687
Exfiltration type bioretention can collect rainwater runoff to recharge groundwater, but the water diffusion in the in-situ soil can have an impact on the foundation of adjacent structures (such as roads). Generally, the existing studies are primarily focused on the exfiltration of bioretention as an index of runoff control or the water balance. However, research is lacking on the diffusion characteristics of soil water content in different in-situ soils. Therefore, in this study, the VADOSE/W model was used to simulate the water transport process of bioretention ponds and in-situ soils, under long-term rainfall. The water diffusion characteristics of four in-situ soils were studied: silt loam (SL), loam (L), sandy clay loam (SCL), and sandy loam (SaL). The results showed that under 12 rainfall events, with a monthly maximum rainfall of 268 mm in the study area, for four in-situ soil types, the bioretention pond’s bottom exfiltration volume per unit area reached 3.93–7.91 times that of the lateral. The order of bottom exfiltration volume was SaL>SCL>L>SL. Over time, the in-situ soil water content fluctuated with rainfall events. The order water content was usually SL>L>SCL>SaL, and the water diffused into the in-situ soil was distributed in a symmetrical arc along the horizontal direction. After rainfall events, at depths of 1, 3 and 5 m, for SL, L, SCL, and SaL soils, the lateral water diffusion ranges were ~1.25-1.47 m, ~1.23-1.45 m, ~1.22-1.77 m, and ~1.46-1.60 m, respectively. With a continuous supply of water, the horizontal diffusion distance of each in-situ soil tended to be the same, although the water diffusion range of SCL was relatively larger. Therefore, when an exfiltration type bioretention area is designed, the distance between the bioretention edge and the adjacent structures should be longmore than 2 m to avoid nearby structural foundations being negatively affected by water seepage over a long period of time.
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