ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Amelioration of Hepato-Renal Toxicity by a Flavonoid-Rich Fraction of Hibiscus rosa-sinenses (Leaves and Flowers) in Male Rabbits Intoxicated by Cadmium
Naqi Hussain1, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhary1, Aftab Ahmed Anjum2, Naeem Abbas3, Muhammad Zaheer4, Ghulam Mustafa5, Muzaffar Majid1
 
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1College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
2Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
3Centre of Environmental Protection Studies, Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research,
Lahore, Pakistan
4Applied Chemistry Research Centre, Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lahore, Pakistan
5Quality Operations Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
Online publish date: 2017-07-21
Publish date: 2017-07-25
Submission date: 2017-01-09
Final revision date: 2017-01-31
Acceptance date: 2017-02-08
 
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2017;26(4):1551–1563
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ABSTRACT
This study was initiated to anticipate the potential protective effects of flavonoid-rich fractions of Hibiscus rosa-sinenses flowers (HF) and leaves (HL) on cadmium (Cd)-induced toxicity in adult albino rabbits. Cd, being a prominent environmental pollutant, poses a threat for its widespread range of toxic expressions. A dramatic increase in total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity has been observed in flavonoid-rich fractions of HF and HL as compared to their crude extracts, suggesting for the rationale for their use in this study. Thirty-six male rabbits were indiscriminately allocated into six groups, including control, Cd (6.1 mg Cd/kg/day), HF and HL (200 mg HF & HL /Kg/day), Cd+HF, and Cd+HL (receiving the same doses of Cd, HF, and HL) groups. Treatment (p.o) for 60 days resulted in improvement of weight gain in Cd+HF and Cd+HL groups in comparison with the Cd group. Treatment with Cd+HF showed better results than Cd+HL by significantly decreasing (p<0.05) transaminases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and creatinine and urea levels, while total bilirubin and albumin were increased on the 15th, 30th, 45th, and 60th days in a progressive manner when compared with the Cd receiving group. Likewise, the Cd+HF group showed better activities than Cd+HL by significantly increasing (p<0.05) superoxide dismutase, catalase, and vitamins C and E, while LPO and Cd concentrations were significantly decreased in the liver and kidney tissues when compared with Cd-intoxicated bucks. Values of these parameters in only HF and HL-receiving groups were near the control. The histopathological studies for these tissues have also sustained the above-mentioned data. Thus, these outcomes suggest that the flavonoid-rich fraction of HF may act as a potent hepatic and renal protective agent than HL against Cd-induced toxicity in animal models.
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