Analysis of Toxic Chemical Substance Present in Wastewater Samples Around the Urban Area of Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
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Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering Near Karakambadi Road, Opp Lic Training Center, Tirupati-517507, Andhra Pradesh, India
Key Laboratory of Environmental Science, Dept. of Science and Humanities, Sri Venkateswara college of Engineering, Tiruapti-517507, Andhra Pradesh, India
Dept. of Science and Humanities, Sri Venkateswara college of Engineering, Tiruapti-517507, Andhra Pradesh, India
Raju Katepogu   

Science and Humanities, Sri venkateswara College of Engineering, Karakambadi road, 517507, Tirupati, India
Submission date: 2019-07-08
Final revision date: 2019-10-15
Acceptance date: 2019-10-15
Online publication date: 2020-03-23
Publication date: 2020-05-12
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2020;29(5):3163–3170
The world is facing problems with a wide variety of pollutants and contaminants from various developmental activities. The population explosion is one reason for an increase in polluted wastewater from various sources like industrialization and urbanized societies. Essentially, all human beings, plants and animals need water to be sustained, and abnormal environmental changes are occurring through toxic substances such as nitrate, nitrite, sulfide, sulphate, sodium, potassium, cadmium, lead, chromium, iron, and mercury that enter land and water bodies. Those are the drastic influences on terrestrial ecosystem, besides environmental decline disturbing daily human life. The present study focused on the physicochemical analysis of wastewater around the industrial urban area of Tirupati. The analytical standard methods were followed. The results represent that the colour of the collected samples were brown and unpleasant. The conductivity values ranged from 120-180 μS/cm (S1-S4) results of high salts. The turbidity range was about 32-28 NTU(S1-S4). The hardness of wastewater was noted at 420-520 mg/l. The total solids were found to be 600-1300 mg/l and the salinity values varied from 220-290 mg/l. The Alkalinity of water values ranged from 220-290 mg/l, which were further confirmed by pH measurements obtained as 10.5, 8.8, 7.99, and 7.82 (S1, S2, S3 and S4) respectively. Currently, the results were remarkably highly polluted and may cause harmful skin diseases and eye maladies, and even damage to kidney functions. The presence of ionic chloride values shows 300-530 mg/l and total suspended solids (TSS) values were 300-550 mg/l. The maximum total dissolved solids (TDS) are in the range of 300-800 ppm. Furthermore, the dissolved oxygen (DO) was determined at about 5.5-7.66 mg/l and biological oxygen demand (BOD) values of 102-92.4 ppm were noticed, whereas volatile organic compounds (VOC) values ranged 1.2-2.8 (S1-S4). The high volatile organic substances produce a pungent smell. Analysis methodology results were compared with the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) along with environmental protection rules from 1986 and ISO 10500-2012 standards. The studies significantly represent the possiblility of contamination of surrounding living systems being drastically disturbed regarding growth and development. The conclusion is that water bodies around urban areas of Tirupati were highly polluted due to the discharge of waste materials either directly or indirectly dumped into the water bodies, and pollution control boards and municipalities are not taking serious actions, which may continuously increase the anaerobic and hygine problems that could spread viruses and insect populations and that may affect all living organisms.