Death Effects Assessment of PM2.5 Pollution in China
Zhixiang Xie 1, 2, 3  
Yaochen Qin 1, 2, 3  
Lijun Zhang 1, 2  
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College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China
Key Laboratory of Geospatial Technology for Middle and Lower Yellow River Regions, Kaifeng 475004, China
Collaborative Innovation Center of Urban-Rural Coordinated Development, Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450046, China
Online publish date: 2018-02-20
Publish date: 2018-03-30
Submission date: 2017-08-04
Final revision date: 2017-09-11
Acceptance date: 2017-09-18
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2018;27(4):1813–1821
The provinces of China have suffered from severe PM2.5 pollution in recent years, presenting a significant threat to human health. Identifying associations between mortality rate and PM2.5 level is extremely useful for a range of purposes, such as the development of preventive measures, increasing health awareness, and establishing disaster warning systems. Based on remote sensing data, station monitoring data, and statistical data, this paper uses the exposure response function, regression analysis, and kriging to evaluate the number of deaths in China’s 31 provinces caused by PM2.5 pollution in 2015. Variations in the number of deaths and mortality rates in China under different PM2.5 concentration control standards have been simulated by a range of countries and organizations helping to develop optimal control standards for each province individually according to actual PM2.5 concentration. These results show that:
1) PM2.5 pollution has an important effect on the mortality rate in China. The rate caused by PM2.5 pollution in 2015 accounted for 1.75‰, or approximately 2.62 million people and 31.14% of all deaths in China.
2) Strict control standards for PM2.5 concentration can bring significant health benefits, with projections that if PM2.5 concentration in China’s provinces were controlled to the level set by China, the EU, Japan, USA, and Australia, the number of deaths caused by PM2.5 pollution would be reduced by approximately 0.95, 1.52, 2.02, 2.26, and 2.49 million people, respectively, or 36.24%, 58.08%, 79.91%, 86.47%, and 95.20% compared with baseline year data.
3) Choosing appropriate control targets for limiting PM2.5 concentrations in different provinces in China is an effective way to obtain optimal health benefits. Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, and Henan should adopt a 35 μg/m3 standard with a 25 μg/m3 standard appropriate for Shanxi, Liaoning, Jilin, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Chongqing, Shanxi, and Xinjiang; 13 provinces, including Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Gansu, Qinghai, and Ningxia, should adopt the 15 μg/m3 standard; and Hainan should consider choosing a 12 μg/m3 standard.
Zhixiang Xie   
College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng , China, 475004 Kaifeng, China