Findings on Trends of Chromium and Lead Bioaccumulation in Cirrhina mrigala in the Water and Sediments of River Ravi
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Soil Fertility Research Institute, Lahore, Agriculture Department, Punjab, Pakistan
Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS), Lahore, Pakistan
Muhammad Akram Qazi   

Agriculture Department, Punjab, Pakistan., Soil Fertility Research Institute, Lahore, Pakistan
Submission date: 2021-02-06
Final revision date: 2021-08-08
Acceptance date: 2021-08-30
Online publication date: 2022-01-03
Publication date: 2022-02-16
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2022;31(2):1285–1292
Water pollution requires constant analysis and revision of water resource policy at all levels. Unfortunately, waterways are polluted by illegal dumping of urban waste, industrial waste, and a variety of human activities. Hazardous releases from industry are harmful to both human and animal health and safety. The Ravi River is the largest river in Punjab, Pakistan, and its water quality has deteriorated as a result of the inflow of municipal and industrial waste. As a result of this pollution, the aquifer environment is deteriorating. This situation necessitates an assessment of the pollution level in the Ravi and its sediments in order to make an urgent and ecological arrangement to preserve and replenish the quality of the aquifer for long-term and safe use without interfering with the natural flow of the environment. Samples of fish (Cirrhina mrigala), water, and sediment from three public fishing sites in the Ravi River, Shahdra Bridge, Saggian Bridge, and Balloki Headworks, were collected on a monthly basis from October 2015 to March 2016 to detect metal concentrations. Physico-chemical parameters viz dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were measured on the spot, while hardness, turbidity, and alkalinity were measured in the laboratory. The findings show that the highest concentrations of chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) are present in water, fish organs, and river Ravi bed sediments at all three locations with statistically significant variations. Pb was slightly higher for all fish organs compared to Cr. The highest concentration of chromium in water samples was found in October 2015, while the lowest concentration was detected in February 2016. The study concludes that all types of wastewater (sewage and agricultural waste) should be treated and tested for toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Pb prior to discharge into aquatic resources. Finally, for the protection of aquatic life and to keep heavy metals out of the food chain, special attention must be paid to the enforcement of all applicable laws and regulations.