Investigation of Multi-Pesticide Residues in Prunus persica L. (peach) Cultivars of District Swat Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy
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Department of Soil and Climate Sciences, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Haripur, Pakistan
Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sheringal, Dir Upper, Pakistan
Department of Plant Protection, Agriculture University Peshawar, Pakistan
State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germ Plasma Enhancement, Centre of Pear Engineering Technology Research, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing 210095, China
Waqar Khan   

State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and germ plasma enhancement, Centre of pear engineering technology research, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing 210095, China, China
Submission date: 2021-05-29
Final revision date: 2021-08-04
Acceptance date: 2021-08-30
Online publication date: 2022-01-21
Publication date: 2022-03-22
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2022;31(2):1535–1542
Protection of agricultural crops from pests and diseases is very important to fulfill the needs of growing population. For this purpose, different types of chemicals are used which leads to the accumulation of toxic organic and inorganic compounds in agricultural cycle particularly in economically important fruits and vegetables. Pesticide residue analysis is fundamentally important to ensure the safety of foods, plant and animal origin, and to preserve the environment. It is therefore crucial to monitor fruits and vegetables for pesticide residues using available advanced analytical techniques. The current study was assigned to investigate pesticide residues in peach fruit. We selected six peach cultivars (Early Grand, Florida King, NJC (05), Elberta (06), Maria Delezia, and Indian blood) from four different locations of district Swat. The sampled fruit varieties were then analysed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results showed that Early Grand variety had pesticide residues with highest concentration of Cypermethrin (16.7±1.38 μg kg-1) followed by Pyridaben (7.425±0.11μg kg-1). In Florida King, the highest c oncentration of Endosulfan (32.78±0.9 μg kg-1) is detected followed by Metachlore (17.36±0.44 μg kg-1). In variety NJC and Elberta, Pyredaben, Propachlor, Carbofuran, Cypermethrine, Endosulfan, and Cyhalothrine compound were found. In both varieties, Endosulfan was in the highest concentration (21.27±1.20 μg kg-1and 67.94±4.61 μg kg-1respectively). As these two varieties had close harvesting time, both varieties showed a similar pattern of pesticide residues. In variety Maria, Difenaconazole was found in the highest concentration (187.51μg kg-1) while the Indian blood variety difenaconazole was noted with the highest concentration (88.60±8.9 μg kg-1). The Chloropyrifos was not detected in any variety and the possible reason may be, it is applied at flowering stage before fruit initiation. Although all cultivars at different locations had pesticide residues, however it cannot be considered a serious public health problem because compounds and their residual levels were below critical concentration as defined by European Union regulations. Furthermore, judicious use of pesticides in fruit and vegetable would certainly ensure their minimal exposure in products.