Optimized Pan Evaporation by Potential Evapotranspiration for Water Inflow Estimation in Ungauged Inland Plain Lake, China
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School of Water Conservancy Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, P.R. China
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of the River Basin Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, P.R. China
School of Environment, Southern University Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518000, P.R. China
Submission date: 2022-03-04
Final revision date: 2022-05-23
Acceptance date: 2022-06-18
Online publication date: 2022-10-20
Publication date: 2022-11-03
Corresponding author
Baisha Weng   

China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, A-1, Fuxing Road, Haidian District, 100038, Beijing, China
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2022;31(6):5427–5442
Under the climate changes and human activities, large areas of lakes shrunk and wetlands degenerated. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the primary water loss in the water balance of closed-basin and lakes. However, ET is difficult to estimate, especially in the data-scarce or ungauged zones. For a closed lake without outflow, the inflow could be used to estimate the water shortage of ecological water demand. Based on meteorology data and the pan evaporation (ETpan) data, Penman-Monteith and Hargreaves Model were used to estimate potential evapotranspiration (ET0), which was used to estimate ET, and used the water balance model to assess the water inflow of Wolong Lake. PM model proposed the satisfactory estimation of ET0 from Wolong Lake. The empirical formula of the net radiation was built based on the coefficient that derived from data fitting with function of the measured ETpan and the estimated ET0. The temperature was the dominant factor for the increment of the ETpan. In the data-scarce or ungauged zones, ET0 could be used to evaluate the evapotranspiration from the lake surface (ETlake), instead of the ETpan. The results found that the inflow of Wolong Lake could not meet the demand of the evaporation and water volume advancement.