Removal of Sulfonamides in Water Using an Electro/Peroxydisulfate System Catalyzed with Activated Carbon
Nana Wu 1  
,   Youchen Tan 1  
,   Hong Qian 1  
,   Yusi Wang 2  
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School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang, China
China Energy Engineering Corporation Limited, Liaoning Institute, Shenyang, China
Nana Wu   

Shenyang Jianzhu University, School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, No.9 Hunnan East Road, Hunnan District, 110168 Shenyang, China
Submission date: 2018-01-28
Final revision date: 2018-03-24
Acceptance date: 2018-03-26
Online publication date: 2018-11-16
Publication date: 2019-02-18
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2019;28(3):1957–1965
Sulfonamides are frequently detected in surface water and groundwater, which have the characteristics of low concentration, high toxicity, and being difficult to remove. In this study, an electro/peroxydisulfate system catalyzed with activated carbon (EC/AC/PS) was used to treat sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The results showed that the removal efficiency of SMX was 88.5% by the EC/AC/PS system. An increase of SMX concentration led to a decrease of SMX degradation efficiency, followed by an increase of intermediate products. Acidic conditions improved the degradation of SMX with optimum pH value of 5. A separate increase of AC concentration, PS concentration, and current density would enhance the degradation efficiency of SMX. But the extent was limited when reaching a certain level. There was an optimum plate spacing of 9 cm for SMX degradation efficiency. After repeating the use of AC 4 times, the removal efficiency of SMX still exceeded 80%. The free radical experiments showed that SO4•- played a leading role. The benzene ring structure of SMX was gradually decomposed with reaction. According to data analysis, the reaction kinetic model was Ct = C0exp(-1.100×10-3[AC]0.4471[PS]0.6397[current density]0.5658[plate spacing]0.8405t). This study implied that the EC/AC/PS process could effectively remove sulfonamide antibiotics in water, which was an environmentally friendly treatment method.