Selecting for Cadmium Exclusion or Low Accumulation Rice Cultivars in Slight-Moderate Pollution Area under Field Conditions
Bing Li1,2, Wen Xiang He1, Chang Quan Wang2, Yan Mei Guo3, Ji Long Zhang4
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1College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China
2College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
3Zigong Agricultural Bureau of Sichuan Province, Zigong 643000, China
4Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610081, China
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2014;23(4):1347–1353
It is a simple but effective measure to ensure food security by planting rice cultivars with low accumulation ability of heavy metals, especially with Cd-exclusive ones. Eighty-nine pairs of soil and 17 main rice cultivars from the slight-moderate Cd-pollution paddy field in Chengdu Plain were randomly collected. The Cd content in brown rice, Cd enrichment, translocation factors, and rice yield were studied for screening rice cultivars with low Cd uptake and accumulation in a slightly moderate Cd-pollution environment. The results showed that cadmium content in different parts of rice varies in a large range. Cadmium content in brown rice ranged from 0.05 mg·kg-1 to 0.48 mg·kg-1, specifically from 0.01 mg·kg-1 to 0.19 mg·kg-1 in chaff. Among the 17 main rice cultivars, the content of Cd in brown rice of Kyou 817 was 0.46 mg·kg-1, which lay in the highest level, while the Cd content in brown rice of Aiyou 82, Jinyou 527, Gangyou 22, Fuyou 130, IIyou 906, Yixiangyou 1577, Jinyou 725, and Fuyou 838 were lower than national maximum level (0.2 mg·kg-1). Cadmium content in brown rice, chaff, and straw of Aiyou 82 were notably lower than the average value. The Cd content in roots of IIyou 906 reached a relatively high level, but the rest is lower than the average. The enrichment factors of straw in Fuyou 130 and Jinyou 725 (EFs>0.6) were relatively higher than the average. The straw of Fuyou 130, Yixiangyou 1577, and Jinyou 725 had a stronger ability of Cd translocation (translocation factors >0.45, TFs), which exceeded the average. The yield of Aiyou 82 was lower than the average in 90% level, which was remarkably low. In conclusion, IIyou 906 was the most ideal rice cultivar by evaluating the Cd content in brown rice, EFs and TFs in straw, and yield levels. As for Fuyou 130, special attention should be paid to reduce the risk of Cd pollution in straw returning. Gangyou 22, Jinyou 527, and Fuyou 838 presented lower yields or lighter Cd-resistance ability aboveground.