The Application of Nanoscale Materials in Groundwater Remediation
Adéla Matlochová1, Daniela Plachá2, Naďa Rapantová1
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1 Institute of Clean Technologies for Mining and Utilization of Raw Materials for Energy Use,
2 Nanotechnology Centre,
VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava, Czech Republic
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2013;22(5):1401–1410
This review article summarizes the current situation in the application of nanotechnology to contami- nated site remediation. Many types of nanomaterials and nanoparticles have been produced since their dis- covery. As remediation tools, carbon-based nanomaterial (CNM) sorbents and nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (nZVI) are at the forefront of scientific interest. The most often used CNM sorbents are multiwalled and singlewalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and SWCNTs), which are only examined under laboratory condi- tions. nZVI has already been applied to real contaminated sites as an in situ technology through direct injec- tion into aquifers. CNM sorbents can remove both organic contaminants – aliphatic and mono and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, plus inorganic contaminants – such as divalent metal ions (Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cu2+) from polluted water. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles have been used for the removal of TCE, VOC, nitrates, and uranium. This review shows that these nanomaterials are a promising solution in the field of groundwater remediation, but there are also many unanswered questions regarding the environmental risks of nanoscale materials, which are outlined as well.