Therapeutic Water in the Poprad Valley – the Newest Development in the Polish Outer Carpathians
Agnieszka Operacz1, Ewa Wąsik1, Mariusz Hajduga2, Krzysztof Chmielowski1
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1University of Agriculture in Kraków, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Land Surveying,
Department of Sanitary Engineering and Water Management,
Al. Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Kraków
2MASSPOL Sp. z o.o., Zubrzyk 101, 33-350 Piwniczna-Zdrój
Submission date: 2017-04-03
Final revision date: 2017-06-14
Acceptance date: 2017-07-23
Online publication date: 2018-02-06
Publication date: 2018-03-12
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2018;27(3):1207–1217
Carbonated waters and waters containing carbon dioxide have long been exploited in the Polish Outer Carpathians, especially in the Krynica subunit of Magura Nappe. Exploitation of these waters in the Zubrzyk area is the latest hydrogeological development. The first boreholes were drilled in the early 21st century. Currently, exploitation of therapeutic waters is managed by three boreholes. Two of them (Z-2 and Z-3a) have a database of several years of observation of physical and chemical parameters. The Z-8 borehole was included in exploitation only in early 2016. The Z-2 borehole takes in HCO3-Ca-Mg-Na carbonated water, the Z-3a borehole takes in HCO3-Na-Mg-Ca carbonated water, and the Z-8 borehole intakes HCO3-Na-Mg water containing carbon dioxide.