Variability of Water Resources Flowing Away from Small Agricultural Catchment
Włodzimierz Kanownik, Tomasz Kowalik
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Department of Land Reclamation and Environmental Development, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Al. Mickiewicza 24-28, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2010;19(1):65–71
Monthly, seasonal and annual values for outflow and outflow coefficient measured over ten years for a small agricultural catchment are presented. The catchment is situated at 723-822 m a.s.l and covers 40.57 ha. Mean annual precipitation total during the investigated period was 850 mm and mean annual air temperature was 5.9oC. Average annual overall outflow from the catchment was 446 mm, i.e. 52% of total precipitation. The outflow varied considerably in relation to rainfall/snowfall/snowmelt conditions. The highest monthly outflow was in March and the lowest in November (20.6% and 3.8% of the annual outflow, respectively). Considerable variability of the outflow from the catchment is caused mainly by frequent torrential rains in summer and infiltration of water into groundwater reserves during spring snowmelt.