Assessment of Multipathway Lifetime Risks of Cancer and Non-Cancerous Diseases Associated with Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water in Petropavlovsk City, Kazakhstan
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Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University, Universiteto street, 10, 53361 Akademija, Lithuania
Nazim Nikiforov   

Department of Environmental Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University, Universiteto, 8, 53361, Kaunas, Lithuania
Submission date: 2022-01-04
Final revision date: 2022-03-22
Acceptance date: 2022-03-29
Online publication date: 2022-06-06
Publication date: 2022-09-01
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2022;31(5):4085–4095
Chlorine (Cl-) is used as a disinfectant of drinking water and drinking water distribution networks in Petropavlovsk, Kazakhstan. The disinfectant, interacting with fulvic and humic acids, forms disinfection by-products (DBPs), particularly, trihalomethanes (THMs). THMs might be harmful to the population, as it may cause cancer and non-cancerous diseases. As a result, the current study was focused on the assessments of the lifetime risk of cancer and non-cancerous diseases associated with THMs in Petropavlovsk community. To calculate multipathway lifetime risks of cancer and non-cancerous diseases associated with THMs we used combined United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and scientific methods. The mean concentrations of CHCl3, CHBr3, and CHCl2Br in drinking water were 18.41 μg/L, 48.7 μg/L, and 6.15 μg/L, respectively. The mean lifetime risk of cancer associated with THMs in drinking water was 3.83 × 10-5. The total lifetime risk of non-cancerous diseases associated with THMs was 2.13 × 10-1. The total lifetime risks for cancer from the three routes for the three THMs at 50th and 95th percentile scenarios were higher than the risk of the US EPA recommendation of 1.00 × 10-6, while the total lifetime risks of non-cancerous diseases associated with THMs were lower than the US EPA recommendation of 1.