Bacterial Purification of Sewage Wastewater Effluents and its Influence on Germination Indices of Vigna radiata and Hordeum vulgare
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Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia
Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt
The Holding Company for Biological Products and Vaccines (VACSERA), Egypt
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Submission date: 2018-03-24
Final revision date: 2018-06-14
Acceptance date: 2018-06-22
Online publication date: 2019-04-29
Publication date: 2019-05-28
Corresponding author
Khaled E. El-Gayar   

1- Biology Department- Faculty of Science- Jazan University-Saudi Arabia\n2-The Holding Company for Biological Products and Vaccines (VACSERA), Egypt, Biology Department- Faculty of Science- Jazan University, 45142 Jazan, Saudi Arabia
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2019;28(5):3145–3153
Excessive exposure to heavy metals is known to induce deleterious effects on health. The monitoring of heavy metals in sewage is important for examining environmental pollution induced by treated sewage effluent (TSE). In the current investigation, heavy metals concentrations of TSE of two sewage treatment plants in the Jazan region of KSA were monitored using a Perkin Elmer Optima 7000 DV inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The heavy metals concentrations were below the permissible limit, according to the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MWE) standards of Saudi authorities, except for magnesium and mercury. TSE from the treatment plants was subjected to additional treatment using the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the bacterial strain Citrobacter freundii. A marked reduction of the heavy metals concentrations of the bacterial-treated TSE was recorded. The impact of the bacterial-treated TSE on germination indices of Vigna radiata and Hordeum vulgare was investigated. The seedlings irrigated with the bacterial-treated TSE recorded a clear enhancement of growth parameters. Moreover, the level of accumulated heavy metals in seedlings irrigated with bacterial-treated TSE was reduced compared with those irrigated with untreated TSE. The current study clarified that the level of heavy metals in TSE could be markedly reduced via the application of bacterial VOCs and hence it can be used as a water resource for agricultural purposes.