Contamination, Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Risk Elements in Topsoil for Amusement Parks in Xi’an, China
Bin Guo 1
,   Yi Su 1,   Lin Pei 2,   Xiaofeng Wang 3, 4  
,   Xindong Wei 3, 4,   Bo Zhang 1,   Dingming Zhang 1,   Xiaoxia Wang 1
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College of Geomatics, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an, China
School of Public Health, Xi’an JiaoTong University, Xi’an, China
Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation, Xi’an, China
School of Earth Science and Resources, Chang’an University, Xi’an, China
Xiaofeng Wang   

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation, China
Submission date: 2020-03-13
Final revision date: 2020-05-31
Acceptance date: 2020-06-05
Online publication date: 2020-09-09
The index of geo-accumulation (Igeo) and the pollution load index (PLI) were used to assess the pollution level and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health risk model was implemented to determine the health risk for children. Besides, a geographic information system (GIS) was utilized to map the distribution characteristics of risk elements contents. The results showed that: (1) the mean content of Mn was the highest in each park. Besides, the mean content of all risk elements except As exceeded the background value of Shaanxi in each park. (2) The Igeo of Co was obviously higher than other elements in each park and the highest (4.07) content occurred in the Xing Qing Park (XQP). The pollution condition of the Urban Sports Park (USP) was the most serious among the four parks. (3) The children were more susceptible to risk elements pollution through oral intake. (4) The hazard indices (HI) of non-carcinogenic risk (NCR) were within the safe range (HI = 1) and the carcinogenic risks (CR) of Cr, Ni, As and Co for children were within the receivable range in each park.