Ecological Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediments from Jianhu Lake in Yunnan Province, China
Bo Li 1, 2, 3  
,   Hang Wang 1, 2  
,   Qingguo Yu 1, 2  
,   Feng Wei 4  
,   Qi Zhang 5  
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College of Wetlands, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming Yunnan, China
National Plateau Wetlands Research Center, Kunming Yunnan, China
Institute of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou Guangdong, China
College of Ecology and the Environment, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming Yunnan, China
College of Eco-Environmental Engineering, Guizhou Minzu University, Guiyang Guizhou, China
Qingguo Yu   

College of Wetlands, Southwest Forestry University, China
Submission date: 2019-09-04
Final revision date: 2020-02-14
Acceptance date: 2020-02-14
Online publication date: 2020-06-01
Publication date: 2020-08-05
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2020;29(6):4139–4150
Cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in the sediments of Jianhu Lake were measured by an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) to determine their spatial distribution characteristics and ecological risks. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in surface sediments (0-5 cm) were 0.41±0.34, 143.89±90.07, 46.14±30.08, 56.38±45.71, and 146.52±96.50 mg/kg, while those in core sediments (0-75 cm) were 0.51±0.44, 228.35±174.52, 89.94±74.63, 74.92±65.69, and 208.89±171.55 mg/kg, respectively. The total concentrations of heavy metals were highest in the western area of Jianhu Lake, and were higher in the bottom layer (70-75 cm) than in the surface layer (0-5 cm) in the entire Jianhu Lake region. The potential ecological risks of Cd in sediments were greatest, and the comprehensive potential ecological risks of the five tested heavy metals in sediments were highest in the western area of Jianhu Lake. Using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo), we found that pollution in sediments due to Cr was the most serious of all the heavy metals, and the degree of pollution due to these five heavy metals in each area varied greatly in Jianhu Lake. In addition, we found that the short-term release contribution of Pb and Zn was large, while both the short- and long-term release contributions of Cr were small.