Effect of Vegetable Freezing and Preparation of Frozen Products for Consumption on the Content of Lead and Cadmium
Z. Lisiewska, P. Gębczyński, W. Kmiecik, R. Skoczeń-Słupska
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Department of Raw Materials and Processing of Fruit and Vegetables, Faculty of Food Technology, Agricultural University of Kraków, 122 Balicka Street, 30-149 Kraków, Poland
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2007;16(4):579–585
The aim of our study was to determine the levels of lead and cadmium in fresh vegetables, in vegetables after pre-freezing (blanching or boiling), and in frozen products after a 12-month period of storage at -30°C and prepared for consumption (by boiling samples blanched before freezing, and by defrosting and heating in a microwave oven samples boiled before freezing). Analyses were carried out in four groups of vegetables perfectly suitable for freezing, namely brassicas (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and green and white cauliflower), leafy vegetables (kale, New Zealand spinach, and spinach), root vegetables (celeriac, carrot, parsnip, and red beet), and three species of leguminous vegetables (seeds of broad bean, and pea, and French bean pods). Vegetables of the studied species contained 1-86% and 3-26% of the European admissible levels of lead and cadmium, respectively. Technological processing before freezing, freezing and frozen storage, and culinary preparation of frozen products for consumption did not significantly affect the level of lead. However, boiling reduced the content of cadmium in brassicas, in leafy vegetables, apart from New Zealand spinach, and in root vegetables, apart from carrot and red beet.