Estimation of Residual Antibiotics in Pharmaceutical Effl uents and their Fate in Affected Areas
Shoaib Hussain1, Muhammad Naeem2, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry1
More details
Hide details
1College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore Pakistan
2Applied Chemistry Research Centre (ACRC), Pakistan Council of Scientifi c and Industrial Research (PCSIR)
Labs Complex, Lahore, Pakistan
Submission date: 2014-06-28
Final revision date: 2015-12-31
Acceptance date: 2016-01-02
Publication date: 2016-03-17
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2016;25(2):607–614
Contamination levels of antibiotics, namely ofl oxacin (OFL), ciprofl oxacin (CIP), levofl oxacin (LEV), oxytetracycline (OTC), and doxycycline (DOX), were quantifi ed in wastewater, soil, plants, and underground water of surrounding areas of the pharmaceutical industry in Lahore. HPLC with a DAD detector, C-18 column, and solid-phase cartridges were used to analyze antibiotic residues. In wastewater CIP was 3.0-5.25 mg/L, LEV was 0-6.20 mg/L, OFL was 2.45-4.12 mg/L, OTC was 0-9.40 mg/L, and DOX was 1.58-6.75 mg/L. From wastewater, antibiotics accumulate in environmental segments and impact human health. From wastewater, antibiotics accumulate in soil and plants and percolate to groundwater. The contamination level was 1,000 times higher in wastewater samples than other samples, as it is the primary source of antibiotics entering the environment. After wastewater, soil was the most contaminated environmental segment and groundwater was least contaminated by these residues, but water is very important as it is source of accumulation of antibiotics for human and animal bodies as well as to plants.