Evaluation of Water Quality and Its Potential Threats Along River Chenab Using Geo Statistical Techniques
Ayesha Siddiqua 1  
,   Yumna Sadef 1  
,   Sheikh Saeed Ahmad 2  
,   Mujahid Farid 3  
,   Shafaqat Ali 4, 5  
More details
Hide details
College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore- 54590, Pakistan
Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, 50700, Pakistan
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan
Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
Mujahid Farid   

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering,, Government College University, Faisalabad,, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineeri, 38000, Faisalabaad, Pakistan
Submission date: 2020-10-06
Final revision date: 2021-01-06
Acceptance date: 2021-01-20
Online publication date: 2021-08-09
Cities and towns are affected by the multi-dimensional industrial activities with semi-arid and arid environments which cause a substantial rise in environmental pollution specifically in aquatic areas. The current study estimated the water quality and related health impacts by the consumption of heavy metal contamination. Surface water samples (n = 52) were collected using systematic random sampling technique from semi-arid region along Chenab river of district Sialkot, Gujrat and Mandi-bahwal-din of Punjab, Pakistan. Different physio-chemical and biological parameters and various heavy metal concentration were investigated using standard procedures from the collected surface water samples. Different physio-chemical and biological parameters and heavy metals concentration especially arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) were above the permissible value of World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQs). Water quality index results reflected that water quality of all samples were very poor and not suitable for the purpose of drinking. The value of Hazard Quotient (HQ) for As was near the threshold level (HQ>1) and carcinogenicity of As and Cr was 1 × 10−4 in adults and children was more than the permissible limit laid down by WHO. Anthropogenic activities combined with semi-arid weather of the area in relation with diverse and uncommon water features triggered heavy metal pollution. Inverse distance weighted analyst module of ArcGIS software has been used to generate the spatial distribution of water pollutants of constituents.