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Green and Environmentally Friendly Techniques for Enhanced Physicochemical Characteristics Attributed to Polysaccharides for Industrial Applications
 
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Department of Chemistry, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
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Department of Chemistry, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan
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Department of Chemistry, University of Education, Vehari Campus, Vehari, Pakistan
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Department of Chemistry, University of Sahiwal, Sahiwal, Pakistan
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Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Advanced Studies in Agriculture and Food Security (USPCASAFS), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Munawar Iqbal   

Department of Chemistry, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
Online publication date: 2020-03-16
Publication date: 2020-05-12
Submission date: 2019-06-25
Final revision date: 2019-08-01
Acceptance date: 2019-08-04
 
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2020;29(5):3457–3466
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ABSTRACT
Guar esters of long-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids (fatty acid) were prepared and examined. Esterification was done in two steps, with the first goal to prepare acid chloride by refluxing acid with slight excess of thionyl chloride, and the product was confirmed by elemental analysis. Ten different types of fatty acid (C5-C18) were used for derivatization. The reaction mechanism for synthesis of fatty acid ester of guar was studied in detail. Physical properties of the esters were examined as well. The degree of substitution was calculated by titration method and structure elucidation was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques.
eISSN:2083-5906
ISSN:1230-1485