Heavy Metals Accumulation in Leaves of Five Plant Species as a Bioindicator of Steel Factory Pollution and their Effects on Pigment Content
Zhian Salih 1  
,   Farhad Aziz 1  
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Environmental Sciences Department, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Iraq
Zhian Salih   

Environmental Sciences department, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil-Kirkuk road, 964 Erbil, Iraq
Submission date: 2018-08-30
Final revision date: 2018-10-23
Acceptance date: 2018-10-30
Online publication date: 2019-07-30
Publication date: 2019-09-17
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2019;28(6):4351–4358
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of heavy metals resulting from steel factories and their impact on contents pigments in five plant species (Olea europaea L., Eucalyptus amygdalina, Nerium oleander L., Dodonaea viscosa, and Phragmites australis) in the city of Erbil. Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Co, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids and total protein were determined in leaves of plants away from the factory used as control (unpolluted site), and plants grown in the garden inside the steel factory (polluted site). The results revealed the significant higher accumulation of all heavy metals in all polluted plants in comparison with unpolluted plants. Higher concentrations of Fe, Zn, As, Pb and Co were recorded in leaves of Dodonaea viscosa, while Olea europaea L. found an accumulation of more concentration of Cu and Ni. The level of Mn is significantly higher in the leaves of Eucalyptus amygdalina when compared with other plants. Plants grown on contaminated sites showed the lower concentration of pigments and protein contents. A negative correlation was found between the concentration of heavy metals, pigments and total protein contents in all plant species.