Heavy Metals Occurrence, Seasonal Variation and Enrichment in Urban Soils Augmented with Industrial Waste
Muhammad Zubair 1  
,   Usama Anwar 1  
,   Muhammad Ashfaq 1  
,   Muhammad Nadeem Zafar 1  
,   Mujahid Farid 2  
,   Fayyaz Ahmed 3  
,   Waqar Ahmad 1  
,   Shafaqat Ali 4, 5  
,   Muhammad Rizwan 4  
,   Abdulaziz Abdullah Alsahli 6  
,   Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni 6  
,   Leonard Wijaya 6  
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Department of Chemistry, University of Gujrat, Gujrat 50700, Pakistan
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gujrat, Gujrat 50700, Pakistan
Department of Statistics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat 50700, Pakistan
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, 38000 Faisalabad, Pakistan
Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Muhammad Zubair   

Department of Chemistry, University of Gujrat Pakistan, 50700, Gujrat, Pakistan
Submission date: 2020-10-18
Final revision date: 2020-12-30
Acceptance date: 2021-01-20
Online publication date: 2021-08-09
Publication date: 2021-09-22
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2021;30(5):4871–4886
Present study was planned on the basis of prior field survey with main objective to determine concentrations of selected metals temporally (winter, spring, summer) in the industrial waste sediments, accumulate and enrich in the soils of Gujranwala city. Initially, physiochemical properties of samples pH (>8) colour (grey to black), odour (phenolic) and textures (amorphous to granular) were studied. Moisture contents 0.15-31% with RSD 0.17-16.87 shows variation because of seasonal effect. Overall, ICP-OES analysis reveals concentrations of thirteen selected metals in the range 0.40-379200 mg/kg with lowest of Ag and highest of Al. Statistically, RMANOVA was applied to reveal significant variations within the metals and between the seasons, showing significant metals effect seasonally. Environmental risk was estimated using geo-accumulation index and enrichment factor comparing reference crustal values (Bn) of metals in soil and Fe as reference metal. Aluminium accumulates very strongly and contaminate the soils more than Fe having no contamination in soil. Enrichment factor of Al also found highest indicating the highest enrichment level in the top soil. Overall, Fe and Al among thirteen elements found highest in quantity in the soil samples establishing significant impact in the soil due to their higher concentration. Finally, estimations are supporting the conclusion that metals may have a significant effect in soils where industrial waste is disposed.