How Rapid Urbanization Drives Deteriorating Groundwater Quality in a Provincial Capital of China
Qianqian Zhang 1  
,   Liping Miao 2  
,   Huiwei Wang 1  
,   Junliang Hou 3,   Yi Li 3
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Hebei and China Geological Survey Key Laboratory of Groundwater Remediation, Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Shijiazhuang, China
Agriculture Regional Planning Office of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, China
Geo-Evironmental Monitoring Institute of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, China
Huiwei Wang   

Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Shijiazhuang, 050061,China, China
Submission date: 2018-12-11
Final revision date: 2019-01-24
Acceptance date: 2019-01-24
Online publication date: 2019-08-21
Publication date: 2019-10-23
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2020;29(1):441–450
Groundwater monitoring and social-economic development data were collected to explore the effect of rapid urbanization on groundwater environment and quality. The results show that the groundwater table continuously declined from 13.96 m to 43.25 m between 1972 and 2015. Groundwater hydrochemistry in the Shijiazhuang area changed from a HCO3-Ca (Mg) to HCO3. SO4-Ca (Mg) type, becoming more diverse and complex. Groundwater environments have changed, caused by the oxidationreduction environment changing, the vadose zone thickening, and the proportion of impervious surface area sincreasing. Groundwater quality has deteriorated significantly and NO3- and hardnes shave exceeded grade III of the Chinese national groundwater quality standard range. The concentrations of Cl-, Mg2+, NO3-, salinity and hardness significantly correlate with gross domestic product, permanent population, and population density. The driving factors causing groundwater quality deterioration are population growth, social and economic development, and over-exploitation of groundwater. Therefore, the state and the administration are trying to protect the groundwater environment while pursuing a rapid socioeconomic development.