In-Depth Chemical Analysis of Particulate Matter Emitted by Agarwood: Study of Environmental Impact
Arif Hussain Kaleri 1,2  
,   Hao Fu Dai 1,2  
,   Xi-Qiang Song 1,2  
,   Anum Mehmood 3  
,   Saqib Ali Nawaz 4  
,   Ghulam Sajjad Kaleri 5  
,   Mir Muhammad Nizamani 1,2  
,   Aamir Ali Khokhar 3  
,   Mughair Aslam Bhatti 3  
,   Abdul Rasheed Kaleri 5  
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Key Laboratory of Genetics and Germplasm Innovation of Tropical Special Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants (Hainan University), Ministry of Education, College of Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou, P. R. China
Key Laboratory of Germplasm Resources of Tropical Special Ornamental Plants of Hainan Province, College of Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou, P. R. China
Hainan University, Haikou China
College of Information and Communication Engineering Hainan University, Haikou, China 5702282
Department of Agronomy Sindh Agriculture University Tando Jam, Hyderabad, Sindh, 70060 Pakistan
Submission date: 2021-04-14
Final revision date: 2021-05-20
Acceptance date: 2021-05-25
Online publication date: 2021-10-20
Publication date: 2021-12-23
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2022;31(1):111–119
Agarwood is mainly used to make incense, perfume, traditional Chinese medicine, and other products. In some parts of China, some consumers use cigarettes that contain agarwood. Not all Aquilaria trees can generate agarwood; only trees that are damaged by natural and artificial means form resin. Due to the short time of forming resin, there are some differences in the quality of agarwood. This paper studies the effects of the application of cultivated agarwood in incense, cigarettes, and essential oil. First, the differences in combustion as an incense of this cultivated agarwood and three samples of natural agarwood were researched, and the cytotoxic and genotoxic of aerosols of combustion were tested. Subsequently, the effect of the application of this cultivated agarwood in cigarettes was studied. The particulate matter particles of four samples of agarwood incense burning smoke were detected. The ultrafine particles and fine particles accounted for the vast majority (more than 99%) by number and by mass, and these can enter the human alveoli and have a negative impact on health.