Platinum Group Elements: A Challenge for Environmental Analytics
A. Dubiella-Jackowska, Ż. Polkowska, J. Namieśnik
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Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdańsk University of Technology, G. Narutowicza St. 11/12, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2007;16(3):329-345
An increased worldwide usage of platinum group elements (PGE) has been observed during recent decades. High amounts of PGE are applied in such areas as chemical industry and jewellery production, but the increased demand for these metals primarily depends on the introduction of automobile catalytic converter systems. Catalytic converters have also been considered to be a major source of PGE pollution. The similar Pt:Rh ratio, which is used in these autocatalysts, was found in various environmental samples as well. The present literature review indicates that the concentration of these metals has increased considerably in the last twenty years in different environmental matrices, resulting in ecological and human health risks. Because of the importance of PGE and their trace levels in environmental and biological matrices, sensitive methods are required for reliable determination. Details of the particular steps of analytical procedures for PGE quantification in environmental samples such as road dust, airborne particulate matter, soil, benthic sediments, water, wastewater and biological samples are discussed. Sampling and sample storage and preservation techniques are presented. Moreover, the most frequently used extraction, enrichment, detection and determination procedures for PGE are described.
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