Pollution Evaluation and Sources Identification of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from Upstream of Yellow River
Jianxiu Hao 1  
,   Jun Ren 1, 2  
,   Ling Tao 1, 2  
,   Hongbing Fang 1  
,   Suxia Gao 1  
,   Yinping Chen 1  
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School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering. Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, P. R. China
Engineering Research Center for Cold and Arid Regions Water Resource Comprehensive Utilization, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou, 730070, P. R. China
Jun Ren   

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering. Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, Lanzhou, 730070, P. R. China, School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering., 730070, Lanzhou, China
Submission date: 2020-01-29
Final revision date: 2020-07-09
Acceptance date: 2020-07-16
Online publication date: 2020-11-26
Publication date: 2021-01-20
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2021;30(2):1161–1169
Recently, the water quality of the second longest River in China (the Yellow river) is deteriorating severely. To investigate the heavy metals contaminated degrees, potential risks and pollution sources of heavy metals in the river, we measured the concentrations of 8 heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Pb and Cd) from 122 surface sediment samples collected along the upstream Yellow River. According to the results of enrichment factor (EF) analysis and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) evaluation, we found Cd accumulated significantly for moderately contaminated level and the other heavy metals existed at uncontaminated levels. We conducted risk assessment by using calculation of the sediment quality guidelines (TEC-PEC SQGs) and potential ecological risk index (RI), and the results implied that the concentrations of Ni, Cr and Cd had potential harm for aquatic organisms and the upstream Yellow River had integral no toxic. Moreover, the results of multivariate analysis (principle component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and correlation analysis) indicated that Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr and Cd in the river primarily originated from natural sources, while Ni and Pb mainly derived from different human activities. In addition, partial Cu and Cd come from anthropogenic sources of Ni discharge.