Preliminary Studies of Sediments from the Dobczyce Drinking Water Reservoir
J. Gołaś1, B. Kubica1,2, W. Reczyński1, W. M. Kwiatek2, M. Jakubowska1, M. Skiba3,
M. Stobiński2, E. M. Dutkiewicz2, G. Posmyk1, K. W. Jones4, M. Olko5, J. Górecki1
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1AGH - University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
2Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków, Poland
3Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
4Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, N. Y., USA
5Krakow Water and Sewage Company, Kraków, Poland
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2005;14(5):577–584
The analysis of river and lake sediments indicates that the physical, chemical, biochemical and geochemical processes that influence the fate of toxic compounds and elements in sediments are numerous and complex (for example: sorption - desorption, oxidation - reduction, ion-exchange, biological activity). Due to the above-mentioned general statement, only a long term and complex research programme can lead to satisfactory answers to the questions relating to possible changes of water and environmental quality in the future.
The aim of our study consisted in physical and chemical characterisation of sediments in in-depth profiles taken from the Dobczyce reservoir in southern Poland that is a main source of drinking water for the city of Kraków. Due to morphological reasons, 7 layers of sediment samples were distinguished from the ground level to about 90 cm below (total thickness of the sediments in the sampling site). Analysis of grain size distribution and application of x-ray diffraction method, enabled mineralogical description of sediments.
The use of proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) revealed elemental composition of the samples (Al, P, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn). Concentrations of natural 40K and artificial 137Cs radionuclides were determined by the use of gamma spectrometry.
The following facts were established: 1) the oldest (deepest) and newest, recently deposited layers of sediments are similar in their physical and chemical properties. It means that the inflow of contaminants and biogenic compounds to the reservoir has changed little since it was constructed and filled with water; 2) the severe flood in 1997 changed significantly sediment composition and, in fact, led to purification of sediments in the Dobczyce reservoir.