Risk Analysis of Sewage Sludge - Poland and EU Comparative Approach
P. Przewrocki1*, J. Kulczycka1, Z. Wzorek2, Z. Kowalski2, K. Gorazda2, M. Jodko2
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1 Polish Academy of Sciences, Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Division of Strategic Research,
Wybickiego 7, 31-261 Kraków, Poland
2 Institute of Chemistry and Inorganic Technology, Cracow University of Technology,
Warszawska 24, 31-015 Kraków, Poland
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2004;13(2):237–244
This paper presents a comprehensive and systematic approach to sewage sludge management in both Polish and European Union (EU) legislative systems. It starts with risk, which can be caused by sewage sludge mismanagement. Also, technical aspects and boundaries of utilization and recycling routes are presented. A comparison of national and EU legislation is also presented. The next part is devoted to sewage sludge production, distribution and utilization in Poland. Finally, the influence of sewage sludge treatment and utilization on health and environmental risk in Poland are presented.