The Influence of Physical Modification on the Sorption Properties of Geopolymers Obtained from Halloysite
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Rzeszow University of Technology, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Al. Powstancow Warszawy 6, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
Elżbieta Sitarz-Palczak   

Politechnika Rzeszowska, al. Powstańców Warszawy 6, 35-959, Rzeszów, Poland
Submission date: 2021-02-26
Final revision date: 2021-05-05
Acceptance date: 2021-05-15
Online publication date: 2021-10-01
Publication date: 2021-12-02
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2021;30(6):5749–5764
Halloysite is a naturally occurring mineral that has been listed on the EPA as a material with a low risk of environmental contamination. The aim of the research was to assess the relationship between the adsorption efficiency of selected heavy metals and the effectiveness of physical modification of halloysite. The analyses of selected adsorption and structural properties were carried out, which included, among others, XRD, FT-IR, SEM, and EDS. In addition, a BET and Langmuir isotherm and and the analysis of these isotherms for porous solids (t-Plot method and BJH method) were conducted. On the basis of sorption in the solid-liquid system and leaching tests, the sorption and immobilisation capacity of the studied ions of heavy metals Cu(II), Mn(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) were also determined. The degree of immobilisation, which determines the susceptibility to the release of the tested ions is approx. 92%. It indicates the possibility of using the obtained geopolymers as a component of mixtures stabilizing industrial waste of various origins. The modification of halloysite through sonification did not significantly change the geopolymerization mechanism, nor did the efficiency of the adsorption processes of the studied Cu(II), Mn(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) ions and the effectiveness of their immobilization.