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Total Suspended Particulate Matter (TSP ) and its Associated Heavy Metals in Atmosphere on the Western Coast of Saudi Arabia
Jalal M. Basahi1, 2, Iqbal M. Ismail1, Ibrahim A. Hassan1, 2, Talal Almeelbi1, 2, Nesreen S. Haiba4, Essam Hammam5
 
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1Air Pollution Laboratory (APL), Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES),
King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589., Jeddah KSA
2Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture,
King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21526 El Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt
4Department of Chemistry and Physics, Faculty of Education, Alexandria University, Egypt
5Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of North Carolina Wilmington,
601 S. College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA
Online publication date: 2017-08-24
Publication date: 2017-09-28
Submission date: 2017-01-30
Final revision date: 2017-02-22
Acceptance date: 2017-02-22
 
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2017;26(5):2419–2424
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ABSTRACT
Total suspended particulates (TSP) in ambient air of three sites representing a gradient transect of urbanization along the western coast of Saudi Arabia were collected and their heavy metal contents were analyzed. The sampling was conducted at three sites simultaneously between 16 June to 7 July 2013, 17 September to 1 October 2013 (summer), and 23 December 2013 to 30 January 2014 (winter). The concentration of TSP was very high in ambient air of the two northern sites, ranging between 73 and 883 μg m-3 in the far northern site (Rayes, industrial) which is located south to Yanbu industrial city, and it was between 64 and 251 μg m-3 in the other site (Rabegh, urban). The southern site (Abhur, residential) showed relatively lower levels of TSP (ranging between 54 and 339 μg m-3). TSPs were also analyzed for 11 heavy metals (Al, Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr, K, and V) using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. The Fe, Km and Zn concentrations were higher than other elements and they differed significantly among the studied areas. The present study showed that the concentrations of measured elements decreased in the order of industrial > urban > residential.
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