Wastewater as a Source of Productive Water, Biomass, and Energy at Low Cost Against the Respective Scarcities in the Present and the Future in African Countries
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Department of Biological Sciences, Université Nazi Boni, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Summit University, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria
Department of Food Science and Technology. Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Submission date: 2022-11-18
Final revision date: 2022-12-10
Acceptance date: 2022-12-14
Online publication date: 2023-09-21
Publication date: 2023-10-25
Corresponding author
Bilassé Zongo   

Departement of Biological Sciences, Université Nazi Boni, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2023;32(6):4937–4952
With the increasing population and urbanization in the world, generated wastewater is an alternative to water scarcity. Treated wastewater has environmental, human health and socio-economic benefits. However, in Africa, 95% of raw-wastewater is released into the environment. Therefore, this paper emphasizes wastewater reuse meeting the standard criteria, particularly in Africa.
Data were collected based on peer review literature on wastewater reuse systems, and handling systems in general and specifically in Africa. In addition, online publications and onsite visits in Burkina Faso and Nigeria allow apprehending wastewater reuse systems in the world including Africa. Then, analysis was done and challenging prospects were identified.
Results show that from ancient to the present, wastewater is disposed of or reused for different purposes. Because of increasing waterborne diseases, advanced water reclamation technologies were developed for water reuse. In Africa, raw wastewater is still disposed of and reused while cost-effective technologies and facilities are now developed for wastewater reclamation. Consequently, populations are suffering from waterborne diseases. Produced effluent meeting the standards for reuse is the appropriate treatment. To make it possible in Africa, leaders must pay attention to population wellbeing as a priority, to infrastructures and their maintenance, to integrated technologies for cost-effective treatment, and to consider the removal of antimicrobial resistances.