Effect of Metals on Smoker Immune System and their Correlation with Viral Infections
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Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Department of Botany, Islamia College Peshawar, 25120 Peshawar, Pakistan
Biology Laboratory, University Public School, University of Peshawar, 25120 Peshawar, Pakistan
Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
Department of Agroecology-Climate and Water, Aarhus University, 8830 Tjele, Denmark
Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Botany Department, Faculty of science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35511, Egypt
Submission date: 2023-09-27
Final revision date: 2023-12-10
Acceptance date: 2024-01-19
Online publication date: 2024-02-28
Corresponding author
Ayoub Rashid Ch   

Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Muhammad Nauman Khan   

Department of Botany, Islama College Peshawar, 25120 Peshawar, Pakistan, Pakistan
This study was standardized to investigate the effects of trace metals in smokers’ blood samples and find metals’ correlation with virulent diseases. An auxiliary finding was used to detect the inflated amount of metal absorption, which was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The large metal level does not generate immunity in the smoker’s body. Human samples display fickle computation of concentrations of these metals. The Mean±SD of As, B, Pb Sr, and Zn in smoker’s samples were (6.1±2.9 ppb), (285.9±118.1 ppb), (60.7±28.5 ppb), (28.6±9.8 ppb), and (420.5±100.4 ppb) reciprocally. The As, B, Pb, Sr, and Zn concentrations in all the smokers’ blood samples were over the acceptable limit, withal the P-value= (≥0.05) all the samples have displayed no correlation in smokers against viral inflammation. This examination can be used as a support and quotation for further investigations. These findings declare that the number of metals in the body for long periods contributes to toxicity and promotes viral infections.
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