Elevated CO2 Concentration Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Drought Stress by Modifying Stomatal Traits of Green Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
Na Liu 1
Xu Cao 2
Yao Cheng 1,3
Lihua Hao 1,3
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School of Water Conservancy and Hydropower, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, 056038, China
School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083, China
Hebei Key Laboratory of Intelligent Water Conservancy, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, China
School of Landscape and Ecological Engineering, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, Hebei, China
Submission date: 2020-12-18
Final revision date: 2021-03-30
Acceptance date: 2021-04-12
Online publication date: 2021-09-20
Publication date: 2021-12-02
Corresponding author
Yunpu Zheng   

Hebei University of Engineering, China
Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2021;30(6):5605-5615
We examined the interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and water stress on the stomatal density, stomatal opening, and stomatal distribution pattern of green pepper with environmental growth chambers, whereby the CO2 concentration was automatically controlled at 400 μmol mol-1 (a[CO2]) or 800 μmol mol-1 (e[CO2]). Soil water was treated with full irrigation (75-85% field capacity), mild stress (65-75% field capacity), moderate stress (55-65% field capacity), and severe stress (45-55% field capacity). We found that e[CO2] increased the stomatal density by 65% and 79% on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces, when green pepper plants were treated with mild water stress at the anthesis stage. Water stress obviously changed the stomatal density (SD) at both the early anthesis and maturation stages, whereas had little effect on the SD at the anthesis stage. Moreover, water stress also altered the stomatal aperture size and shape at the early anthesis stage. As a result, e[CO2] and water stress not only changed the SD at the early anthesis and anthesis stages, but also modified the stomatal opening at the maturation stage. In addition, elevated CO2 concentration and water stress made the distribution of stomata more regular on green pepper leaves. Our results indicated that green pepper responds e[CO2] and water stress not only through modifying the morphology of individual stoma, but also by adjusting stomatal distribution pattern on leaves.
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